How to Best Use Stone In The Garden
Here are some thoughts to consider about stone as ornament or feature in gardens.
Many of us are so used to living with brick and concrete all around us that we rarely have the opportunity, or the time to think about, study and appreciate natural stone. Nothing beats its beauty, in all its variations of form, texture, striation, weathering, colouring, weight and durability. Marble, granite, limestone, slate – all have their own special characteristics and uses in specific settings.
Past civilizations have used the extraordinary natural beauty and gravitas of stone to create stone circles, corbelled buildings with not a gram of mortar that have nevertheless lasted centuries, to inscribe runes and drawings, as burial chambers and as free-standing individual symbols of religious, ritualistic or other spiritual significance.
Judiciously placed contemporary or classical sculpture, boulders of varying sizes and bird baths or other water containers can all be used effectively as decorative garden features. Choose one or two features of one type of stone to avoid an overly fussy design.
Classical Japanese gardens use standing stones and stone groupings to interpret the larger natural formations of mountains, cliffs and river beds. They illustrate brilliantly how scaled down versions may be miniaturised in a garden setting. Japanese understanding and appreciation of the qualities of stone has been a major influence in the design of many late 20th century and contemporary gardens, in which minimal, but bold statements in stone, used subtly and cleverly create both drama and serenity.
Scale is critically important. I’ve seen many gardens in which a tiny (often concrete) statue of Venus de Milo, Aphrodite, Persephone or other Greek Goddess has been positioned at the far end of a garden, even directly against a fence and usually at ground level. You’d need binoculars to see it and it is out of scale and unimaginative. If your client has a much-loved small stone sculpture or bird bath and unless it is truly hideous it will look best set on a plinth of rendered brick, or a large piece of squared off timber, at least 1metre above soil level and thus closer to the natural eye line. This immediately lends the sculpture some dignity and interest. Such pieces are generally best set amongst foliage, not out on their own. However, fine art stone sculpture or a dramatic standing stone may be the garden's main focal point, even if it is large and the garden small. Such a piece makes the designer's job easier as the rest of the garden can be designed entirely to set off this single feature. It can be positioned in an open space, where you can view it from all sides. Be careful though – a large marble statue, or massive granite standing stone in a suburban garden could look very odd. If a particular local stone is evident and visible in the immediate landscape, use it.
Another common problem confronting the designer is the 'rockery' arising out of a flat lawn like a currant bun. A mound of earth has rocks, bits of concrete or boulders stuck onto it with no consideration of the natural lie of stone in a slope and no understanding of how ugly it looks in an otherwise completely flat area. Sometimes the house owner will have spent months building a rockery 'water feature' in a corner against a fence but with space behind it for so-called maintenance. This kind of ready-made feature presents a problem for the designer. It can be extremely difficult to persuade the client that it needs to be dismantled and discarded, or rebuilt – at their cost. Sometimes you have to decline the commission and just walk away.
A Garden Designer’s Guide To Poisonous Plants
There are dangers lurking in almost every garden, and even in the conservatory - dangers to humans, animals, birds and beneficial insects. They are also evident in the wider countryside, along hedgerows, in innocent-looking streams and in woodlands. One such danger is that of poisonous plants, many of which are far from obvious except to the expert. Those discussed in this blog are by no means exhaustive, but illustrate a range of concerns that should be foremost in the designer's mind. You need always to be sensitive to these dangers, whoever your clients may be and unquestionably if they have young children, or pets. Awareness is also in the interests of your own health and safety when designing and working with plants.
A surprisingly large percentage of plants are toxic or poisonous to handle, or to eat. The humble potato is poisonous raw and cooking will not eliminate the poisonous green parts, which should always be discarded. The milky sap of the beautiful euphorbias (spurge) will burn and blister skin and will despatch you to hospital if you should get it into your eyes. Always make sure that your clients know they should wash their hands and those of their children, after handling plants or playing in the garden.
If ' mushrooms' appear in the lawn they are probably not the edible fungus that is tray packed in the supermarket. Don't eat them. Some of the most bewitching plants are the most deadly and therefore particularly dangerous to small children who want to pick 'the pretty flower' and even put it in their mouths. Digitalis (foxgloves) with their purple, pink, yellow and white flowers are attractive to bees but poisonous to humans. The tender and exquisite blue aconitum (monkshood), sometimes found growing wild in shady chalk soils, dainty, dancing aquilegias, and the stunning range of irises – all are poisonous. So too are winter-flowering Lenten roses (hellebores), the delicate blue pulsatillas (pasque flowers) and moisture-loving, spring flowering, golden Caltha palustris (kingcups), often planted at the margins of ponds and found growing wild in wetland meadows.
There are several trees with poisonous fruits, flowers or berries, the most well-known being laburnum (golden chains). With its gorgeous, abundant, pendulous yellow flowers it has been an extremely popular garden tree, but its brown seed pods contain shiny black seeds – poisonous!
The delightful red yellow and orange berries that the birds love are frequently poisonous to humans , including those of the silver-leaved Hippophae rhamnoides (sea buckthorn). In wilder or untended parts of the garden there will almost certainly be familiar stinging nettles, and hogweed, which will blister and irritate the skin.
If garden boundaries abut pastures where sheep, cattle or horses graze, not only should these boundaries be stock proofed, but beware of planting poisonous hedging or other plants that can be reached by inquisitive livestock – they will lean over, pluck and chew indiscriminately on anything that looks enticing within a metre of the boundary. The leaves and fruits of conifers such as Juniperus (juniper) are poisonous to cattle and humans. So too the wonderful Taxus (yew) which forms such a marvellous, dense hedging and is invaluable in the creation of formal gardens There are many other shrubs and perennial weeds that are toxic to cattle and horses – ragwort, seen too often in neglected fields, common ligustrum (privet) hedging and hedera (ivy) are just a few.
Be a responsible designer and check online for a number of excellent books on poisonous plants.
Function and form
A long term and continuing debate has been whether form follows function, or function follows form. Initially, as a trained artist, but as a novice, student designer I felt instinctively - and arrogantly - that the function, or functions of the garden could follow its form; in other words I would be able to design the ground patterns and layout I wanted for various areas and could then translate these into a garden that fulfilled the functions required by the (at that point theoretical) client.
This approach is not entirely without merit and remains a luxurious possibility if you are fortunate enough to be presented with a completely blank canvas, a rather large working space and a big budget. However I discovered very quickly that most sites - with the occasional exceptions of brand new estate gardens - are not blank canvases, but almost always possess existing features, furniture and conditions that necessarily must be incorporated into a new design, in addition to the wish list of the client. The smaller the garden the more demanding it is in this regard and even if empty will already present its own peculiarities and limitations that cannot be ignored.
So I realised that the job of the designer – as distinct from the artist – is to create something that performs its function as perfectly and beautifully as possible. The artist's interpretation of a subject is usually less limited by practicalities, other than those of the medium and materials used. The artist also usually does not have to please anyone but himor herself and so can be controversial and even outrageous . That is why art can be ahead of its time. As a designer you can push the boundaries, indulge in blue sky thinking and introduce innovative ideas, but the bottom line is that the garden must be functional – as a place of quiet reflection and retreat, a source of food, a space for entertainment, play and recreation, storage and utility, all according to your client's needs. It is they who will be paying for, maintaining and using the garden long after you have left.
Without any design training it is perfectly possible to achieve all the functional requirements of a garden without one iota of aesthetic consideration. However the resulting garden will not be attractive and will certainly not have the 'wow' factor. Fulfilling these disparate requirements whilst making a garden that is beautiful to behold is the challenge which only a good designer can meet. And this same challenge epitomises the rule of thumb that I subsequently understood – that form follows function.